Wikipedia contributors need to better utilize peripheral cues that may assist Wikipedia readers to correctly evaluate the credibility of Wikipedia, at least of an information-driven genre. Educators need to develop a holistic approach employing peripheral cues that guide Wikipedia readers to evaluate information that they are unfamiliar with.
In addition, a high percentage of the respondents reported using external links. This result provides practical implications for library and educational practices. College libraries can promote their library sources or suggest other useful sources by actively inserting their sources or other useful Web sources into relevant Wikipedia articles.
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The presently dominant account of practical rationality in the social and behavioral sciences such as economics and psychology, rational choice theory, maintains that practical rationality consists in making decisions in accordance with some fixed rules, irrespective of context. Ecological rationality, in contrast, claims that the rationality of a decision depends on the circumstances in which it takes place, so as to achieve one’s goals in this particular context. What is considered rational under the rational choice account thus might not always be considered rational under the ecological rationality account.
An intermediate amount of knowledge about a set of objects can result in the highest proportion of correct decisions, an example of the â€œless-is-more effectâ€ . In other words, fast and frugal heuristics explain human behavior based on the human rationality of making a decision. In a similar vein, Gigerenzer (2002) provides an explanation of why fast and frugal heuristics work. Humans use heuristics that are matched to particular environments and make adaptive decisions, taking into account a combination of accuracy, speed and frugality. In other words, humans are ecologically rational.
- In addition to this experiment, studentsâ€™ verification behavior was examined through a self-reported survey.
- This book is hard to rate objectively.
- In addition, the survey data of an exploratory question regarding the reasons for not verifying information provide some other possible explanations of non-verification behaviors.
- In addition, a high percentage of the respondents reported using external links.
- For instance, loss aversion is often presented as a truism; in contrast, a review of the literature concluded that the â€œevidence does not support that losses, on balance, tend to be any more impactful than gainsâ€ (Gal and Rucker, 2018).
- Gigerenzer is currently director of the Center for Adaptive Behavior and Cognition (ABC) at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development and director of the Harding Center for Risk Literacy, both in Berlin, Germany.
This is the kind of mistake that can lead to global financial crises. When bankers mistake uncertainty for known risk, they create the illusion of certainty-and they have the mathematical models to prove it.
The above studies suggest that similar phenomena may be observed regarding usersâ€™ credibility judgments of Wikipedia. That is, peripheral cues may affect the credibility judgments of college students concerning Wikipedia. Based on dual-process theories, Reinhard and Sporer (2010) conducted a series of experiments to test whether there were relationships between the use of source cues and the levels of task involvement in making credibility judgments. One of their experiments used the attractiveness of images as a source cue, which can be considered as a peripheral cue. They found that only peripheral cues influenced the credibility judgments of participants with low-task involvement, whereas both central and peripheral cues had an impact on the credibility judgments of participants with high-task involvement.
Further, this study did not take into account the quality of the citations, which may result in different credibility judgments. Further research is needed to examine the effect of the quality of citations on credibility judgments. Fourth, this study examined usersâ€™ verification behavior by directly asking whether they wanted to verify information. An experiment employing indirect methods for verification behavior may result in different findings. For example, providing an option for verification without asking a direct question would be a more effective way to examine verification behavior.
both expertise and trustworthiness may be equally important in credibility judgments. Based on Riehâ€™s (2010) definition and the credibility literature, this study defines credibility as an individualsâ€™ assessment whether information is believable based on their knowledge, experience and situations. The mid-17th century heralded one of the greatest intellectual revolutions – the so-called probabilistic revolution – which has changed science and everyday life, from statistical mechanics to baseball statistics.
I think every person would benefit from reading this book, and I highly agree with the author that schools need to be revolutionized to teach risk literacy. (This would be an excellent book to incorporate into a high school reading list.) He outlines his proposed curriculum, including Health Literacy, Financial Literacy, and Digital Risk Competence, as well as the skills required for mastering each topic (statistical thinking, rules of thumb, and psychology of risk). I would love to have/read the textbooks for such classes, as I want my daughter to have such an education.