Reactions of Acids: Metals, Carbonates & Hydroxides

By definition, strong acids and bases can produce a relatively large amount of hydrogen or hydroxide ions and, as a consequence, have a marked chemical activity. In addition, very small amounts of strong acids and bases can change the pH of a solution very quickly. If 1 mL of stomach acid [which we will approximate as 0.05 M HCl(aq)] is added to the bloodstream, and if no correcting mechanism is present, the pH of the blood would go from about 7.4 to about 4.9-a pH that is not conducive to continued living. Fortunately, the body has a mechanism for minimizing such dramatic pH changes.

So as mentioned above, the low surface area and some kind of passivation may be involved. Why not trying that putting the Al wires in a strong solution of NaOH and then HCl?

Of course, these systems don’t always work perfectly. Some people struggle with stomach problems in which too much acid is made.

Measurements show that the hydrochloric acid solution has a higher osmotic pressure than the acetic acid solution. Explain why.

That barbequed pork you ate for dinner a few nights back? Your stomach acid may have taken up to four hours to break it down. That’s why eating protein keeps you full longer than eating sugar.

The metal is applies for zirconium and thorium production. In steal industries calcium is applied as a blotter, and is added to aluminium, copper and lead alloys. Calcium can extract sulphur dioxide from industrial exhaust, and neutralize sulphuric acids before discharge. Other examples of calcium applications are calcium hypo chloride as bleach and for disinfection, calcium phosphate in glass and porcelain industries, calcium polysulphide and hydroxide as flocculants in wastewater treatment, and calcium fluoride as turbidity agent in enamel industries, in UV-spectroscopy, and as a raw material for fluid acid production.

Thus, ammonia acts as a base in both the Arrhenius sense and the Brønsted-Lowry sense. The reaction of acid and base to make water and a salt is called neutralization The reaction of acid and base to make water and a salt. − ). These react with the hydrochloric acid to produce water, carbon dioxide, and harmless chloride ions.

The last group we’ll focus on is the reaction with an acid and a hydroxide. A hydroxide is negatively charged and contains a hydrogen and oxygen atom.

It is a dynamic equilibrium because acid and base molecules are constantly dissociating into ions and reassociating into neutral molecules. As indicated in Section 10.4 “The Strengths of Acids and Bases”, weak acids are relatively common, even in the foods we eat. But we occasionally come across a strong acid or base, such as stomach acid, that has a strongly acidic pH of 1-2.

stomach acid dissolve aluminum oxidation reaction definition

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