However, even the more industrialized countries of Serbia and Croatia suffer from weak university-industry linkages. Strong growth in the number of doctorate-holders has enabled researcher density to grow in most countries. The expenditure on intramural Development and Research increased in all the four sectors. In particular, the Business enterprises expenditure on R&D (BERD) registered a 7.5% increase on the previous year, the Higher education sector a +6.5%, the national government a +0.8% and the Private non-profit sector a +5.5%.
Total intramural R&D expenditure (GERD) comprises current costs and capital expenditure on R&D. All data are broken down by the above mentioned sectors of performance. The R&D expenditure is broken down by source of funds further, by type of costs, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2), by size class, by type of R&D, by fields of science, by socio-economic objectives and by regions (NUTS 2 level). Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) is total intramural expenditure on R&D performed in the national territory during a specific reference period.
In a minor number of countries, micro enterprises with less than 10 employees where R&D activity is expected to be negligible are excluded from the R&D surveys. However, this has only a minor impact on the aggregated data.
Venture Capital Investment (VCI) is the subset of private equity which is intended for investments in listed companies and firms which develop new products and technologies. VCI serves as the early stage funding (seed and start-up), or it is used for expansion of a venture (later venture). Data from national R&D surveys based on the Frascati Manual, OECD,
They also provide the accounting system within which the institutional classifications and functional distributions may be applied. The website www.innovationdata.be provides a set of indicators describing the progress made by Belgium and its Regions in the field of innovation. The Federal has developed The website Planning Bureau at the request of the Belgian Science Policy Office, following the Federal Government’s decision to create a transversal technology platform. The percent of GDP dedicated to R&D is the most significant indicator which notifies about the level of economic innovation in a particular country. The table below published by Eurostat depicts the data concerning Venture Capital Investment (code VENTURE) which is expressed as GDP (Gross Domestic Product at market prices).
Data in these fields collected by Eurostat serves both scientists and policymakers. In 2009 the total amount of the expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) is 361.1 million BGN which increases by 10.8% in comparison with the previous year and the annual growth tendency retains for the period of 2005 – 2009. In 2010 the total amount of the expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) is 420.1 million BGN which increases by 16.4% in comparison with the previous year and the annual growth tendency retains for the period of 2006 – 2010. In 2013, the total amount of expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) was 521.2 million BGN which was 5.0% more than the previous year.
“Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative and systematic work undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge – including knowledge of humankind, culture and society – and to devise new applications of available knowledge “(Frascati Manual, 2015 edition, par 44). Domain comprises national statistics on R&D expenditure, R&D personnel and government budget appropriations or outlays on R&D (GBAORD). Data are collected in several occasions in a year and they consist of several breakdowns such as institutional R&D performing and funding sectors, types of costs and types of R&D, fields of science and economic activities.
The R&D intensity amounted to 0.64% of GDP and was by 0.07 percentage points higher compared to 2011. The private component of expenditure on the intramural R&D (Business enterprises+Private non-profit sector) increased, rising from 57.7% of total R&D spent in 2013 to 58.3% in 2014. The contribution of government fell by 0.7 percentage points (from 14.0% to 13.3%). The contribution of the Higher education sector remained quite stable (from 28.3% to 28.4%).