It is important to understand how the supplement may interact with the body and with additional medications before taking it. In addition to building protein, L-arginine releases nitric oxide in the blood. In an in-vitro study, tests were run to identify cell viability and ER stress of BMAA with incorporating L-serine as a treatment.
In addition, an inter-individual variation in plasma increase of taurine after supplementation may occur in relation to both nutritional state, age, drug interaction, while gene polymorphism in taurine transporter or modulation of its function and/or expression by cell metabolic state or activation of transcription factors may affect the actual level of taurine being transported into the myofibers [134, 146, 152-154]. Hence caution should be taken when concluding about lack of taurine usefulness for human muscular system without an adequate control of all variables. How does it work?
However, at present this suggestion is not supported by any significant research. In fact, opposing research indicates that the leakage of taurine from damaged cells in cardiac failure may be responsible for the elevated serum taurine levels.
In human studies there is also little indication of toxicity. No serious side effects were reported when up to 6 g of threonine was given daily for 2 wk to patients with spasticity (103).
Such high affinity binding sites have not been evidenced in other tissues. dependent transport system, TauT. Some species (i.e. felines) cannot synthesize taurine and dramatically depends on taurine intake with food. Diet is indeed an important source of the amino acid for all species, especially if reach of fish or beef meat as well as other animal-derived food (i.e. milk).
In transfected BHK cells, Î”23-134 PrP, like WT and Î”32-134 PrPs, was localized to the cell surface when assayed by immunostaining of intact cells with PrP antibody 6H4 (Fig. 5A-C). Furthermore, the Î”23-134 protein, like the WT and Î”32-134 proteins, was attached to the cell surface by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, as demonstrated by its release after treatment of cells with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC), a bacterial enzyme that cleaves the GPI anchor (Fig. 5D-F).
Branched-chain amino acids are used for many other conditions and may be taken by athletes to improve athletic performance, prevent fatigue, improve concentration, and reduce muscle breakdown during intense exercise. But there is limited scientific research to support these other uses. Excess dietary lysine leads to reduced growth and feed intake in young animals fed low-protein diets (76). However, no adverse effects were detected in rats given lysine as 3% of the diet for 2 y (77), which is suggestive of low toxicity for this amino acid. When rats were fed diets that contained 5% lysine, accumulation of triglycerides in liver occurred (78,79).
Taurine is commonly known for its claimed effects as energizer and anti-fatigue compound and it is present in many energy soft drinks as well as in supplement cocktails for athletes. The toxicity of taurine in this context is considered relatively low with respect to other active ingredients; actually it may also be protective against cardiovascular action of caffeine . Such a protection may again result from multiple taurine actions, i.e. an antihypertensive effect via vasodilatation (by reducing adrenergic and angiotensin II actions as well as calcium-induced vasospasm) along with a reduced risk of cardiac arrhythmias via modulation of ion channels and ionic homeostasis . However a certain caution is important especially when taurine is used in children and/or in association with drugs, alchool or other food supplements [19-23]. Apart for its nutraceutical role, taurine may exert clear pharmacological actions by modulating signaling pathways and targets or via restoration of its altered tissue levels.
For some amino acids, considerable literature exists from human and animal studies; in particular, glutamate, aspartate, and phenylalanine are well represented because of their use as food-flavoring agents [glutamate as monosodium gluatamate (MSG) and aspartate and phenylalanine in aspartame]. In addition, information exists on the toxicity of tryptophan because of its apparent involvement in the etiology of eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome, whereas rather less data are available on glutamine and the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which were studied in relation to trauma recovery and athletic performance improvement. For many other amino acids much less information is available, particularly on adverse effects in humans. This article is a brief and by no means comprehensive summary of the available evidence regarding the safety of l-amino acids. Because few common mechanisms seem to relate the adverse effects of the different amino acids, they are discussed in alphabetical order.
After female rats were given additional tyrosine during gestation, neurological and behavioral changes were detected in the pups (114). A part for the use in myotonic dystrophy patients [35-37], the potential therapeutic role of taurine for skeletal muscle disorders has yet to be verified in clinical settings. In fact, most of the studies about the role of taurine for skeletal muscle physiology and its potential in pathological conditions have been carried out in animal models.